Exploring and Learning – Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Edition (2023)

Chapter 7. Growth and Development

learning goals

  1. Describe the abilities newborns have and how they actively interact with their environment.
  2. List the stages of Piaget's model of cognitive development and explain the concepts mastered at each stage.
  3. Criticize Piaget's theory of cognitive development and describe other theories that complement and extend it.
  4. Summarize the important social development processes that take place in childhood.

If all goes well, a baby will be born around the 38th week of pregnancy. The fetus is at least partially responsible for its own birth as chemicals released by the developing fetal brain activate muscles in the mother's uterus to initiate the rhythmic contractions of labor. The contractions are initially about 15 minutes apart, but get faster over time. When the contractions reach an interval of two to three minutes, the mother is asked to assist with the contractions and help deliver the baby.

The newborn arrives with many behaviors intact

Newborns are already prepared to face the new world they are about to experience. As you can see in Table 7.2, Newborn Survival Reflexes, babies are endowed with a variety of reflexes, each providing an ability to help them survive the first few months of life while constantly learning new things. Routines that help them survive. and manipulate their environment.

Table 7.2 Survival reflexes in newborns.
[skip table]
NameStimulusrespondermeaningvideo example
WurzelreflexThe baby's cheek is stroked.The baby turns his head to the blows, opens his mouth and tries to suck.Makes sure baby feeding is a thoughtful habit
BlinzelreflexA light goes on in the baby's eyes.The baby closes both eyes.Protects eyes from strong and potentially dangerous irritants
withdrawal reflexA gentle prick is applied to the sole of the baby's foot.The baby bends the leg.Keeps Baby Explorer away from painful stimuli.
tonic neck reflexThe baby is lying on its back.The baby turns his head to the side and stretches his arm out to the same side.Helps develop hand-eye coordination
Fan reflexAn object is pressed into the baby's palm.The baby grabs the pressed object and can even support its own weight for a short time.Helps with inquiry-based learning.
heath reflectionLoud noise or sudden fall from a height while holding the baby.Baby stretches arms and legs and quickly reaches out hand as if trying to grab something.Protects against falls; could have helped babies cling to their mothers on difficult journeys
step reflexThe baby is suspended barefoot directly over a surface and moves forward.The baby makes stepping motions as if trying to walk.Helps stimulate motor development.

In addition to reflexes, newborns have preferences: initially they like sweet foods, but by four months they become more open to salty foods (Beauchamp, Cowart, Menellia, & Marsh, 1994; Blass & Smith, 1992). ). They also prefer their mothers' scent. A single baby at six days of age has a much greater chance of returning to its own mother's pillow than to another baby's mother's pillow (Porter, Makin, Davis, and Christensen, 1992), and a newborn baby has a fondness for that, too Face . from his own mother (Bushnell, Sai & Mullin, 1989).

Although babies are willing to participate in some activities, they also contribute to their own development through their own behavior. A child's knowledge and skills increase as they chatter, speak, crawl, taste, grasp, play, and interact with objects in the environment (Gibson, Rosenzweig, & Porter, 1988; Gibson & Pick, 2000; Smith & Thelen, 2003 ). Parents can help in this process by offering the child a variety of activities and experiences. Research has found that animals raised in environments with newer objects and engaging in a variety of stimulating activities have more brain synapses and larger cerebral cortices and perform better on a variety of learning tasks than animals raised in more nuanced environments. Henderson and Muller, 1984). Similar effects are likely to occur in children who are given opportunities to play, explore, and interact with their environment (Soska, Adolph, & Johnson, 2010).

Research focus: Using the habituation technique to examine what infants know

It may seem to you that babies have little ability to see, hear, understand, or remember the world around them. Indeed, the famous psychologist William James suggested that the newborn experiences "rising, vibrating confusion" (James, 1890, p. 462). It won't be possible to find out what they know. After all, babies can't talk or answer questions, so how could we find out? But over the past two decades, developmental psychologists have found new ways of assessing what babies know, finding that they know a lot more than you or William James might have expected.

One way to learn about babies' cognitive development is to measure their behavior in response to stimuli around them. For example, some researchers have given infants the ability to control what shapes they see or what sounds they hear based on how hard they suck on a pacifier (Trehub & Rabinovitch, 1972). Sucking behavior is used as a measure of infants' interest in stimuli: we can assume that the sounds or images that they suck most strongly in response to them are those that we can assume they prefer.

Another approach to understanding cognitive development by looking at children's behavior is the habituation technique.habituationrefers toDecreased responsiveness to a stimulus after it has been presented repeatedly. Organisms, including babies, tend to be more interested in things when they first experience them and become less interested the more they are exposed to them. Developmental psychologists have used this general principle to understand what babies remember and understand.

nohabituation process,[1]A baby is placed in a high chair and given visual stimuli while a video camera records the baby's eye and facial movements. When the experiment begins, a stimulus (such as an adult's face) appears in the baby's field of view, and the camera records the time the baby is looking at the face. The stimulus is then withdrawn for a few seconds before reappearing and the gaze being measured again. Over time, the baby begins to get used to the face, so each presentation at the stimulus draws fewer looks. Then a new stimulus is presented (for example, a different adult's face or the same face looking in a different direction) and the researchers see if the gaze time increases significantly. You can see that if the baby's gaze time is increased when a new stimulus is presented, this indicates that the baby can distinguish between the two stimuli.

Although this procedure is very simple, it allows researchers to create variations that reveal a lot about a newborn's cognitive abilities. The trick is simply to change the stimulus in a controlled manner to see if the baby "knows the difference". Studies using the habituation process have shown that babies can perceive changes in colors, sounds and even numbers and physical principles. For example, in an experiment reported by Karen Wynn (1995), six-month-old infants observed a puppet performance that repeatedly jumped up and down two or three times, resting a few seconds between sequences (time duration and speed of jumps was controlled). After the babies got used to this display, the display was changed so that the doll bounced a different number of times. As you can see in Figure 7.2, Can babies count? The babies' observation time increased when Wynn changed the presentation, suggesting the babies could notice the difference in the number of jumps.

Cognitive development in childhood

Childhood is a time when changes happen quickly. The child grows physically and cognitive abilities also develop. During this time, the child learns to actively manipulate and control the environment and is initially exposed to societal demands, particularly the need to control the bladder and bowel. According to Erik Erikson, the challenges that the child faces in childhood are related to the development ofInitiative,competence, Youindependence. Children must learn to explore the world, to be independent and to find their way in the environment.

These skills don't come overnight. Neurological changes during childhood give children the ability to do some things at a certain age but prevent them from doing others. This fact was made clear by the pioneering work of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (Figure 7.3). In the 1920s, Piaget conducted intelligence tests on children to determine what types of reasoning children were capable of. As they tested them, Piaget was intrigued, not so much by the children's correct answers as by the wrong answers. Piaget believed that the wrong answers children gave were not shots in the blue but represented specific ways of thinking unique to the child's developmental stage. Just as almost all babies learn to roll over before they learn to sit up and crawl before they walk, Piaget believed that children acquire cognitive abilities in a developmental order. This realization that children of different ages think fundamentally differently led to Piaget's ideaStages of the cognitive development model.

Piaget argued that children not only learn passively, but also actively seek to understand their world. He argued that children develop as they learn and matureSchemaPatterns of knowledge in long-term memory that help them remember, organize, and act on information. Furthermore, Piaget thought that when children learn new things, they try to reconcile the new knowledge with existing schemes. Piaget believed that children use two different methods, which he called methods, to do thisAssimilationjaccomodation(see Figure 7.4, “Assimilation and Accommodation”).

When children useAssimilation, youUse schemas already developed to understand new information. Once children have learned a scheme for horses, they can name the striped animal they see at the zoo a horse instead of a zebra. Children adapt the existing scheme to new information and label new information with existing knowledge.accomodation, on the other hand implieslearn new information and thus change the scheme. When a mother says, "No, honey, that's a zebra, not a horse," the child can adapt the schema to the new stimulus and learns that there are different types of quadrupeds, only one of which is a horse. .

Piaget's most important contribution to understanding cognitive development, and the cornerstone of his theory, was the idea that development occurs in unique and distinct stages, each occurring at a specific point in time, sequentially, and one after the other. the world with new skills. Piaget's stages of cognitive development are summarized in Table 7.3, “Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development”.

Table 7.3 Stages of Piaget's cognitive development.
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stageApproximate age rangeCharacteristicsstage successes
Sensory motor skillsBirth up to approx. 2 yearsThe child experiences the world through the basic senses of sight, hearing, touch and taste.permanent object
pre-operational2 to 7 yearsChildren acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and imagination. They also begin to see the world from other people's perspectives.theory of mind; rapid increase in language ability
operational concrete7 to 11 yearsChildren learn to think logically. Increasingly, they can perform operations on objects that are only imaginary.conservation
formally active11 years to adulthoodAdolescents can think systematically, reason about abstract concepts and understand ethical and scientific reasoning.abstract logic

Piaget's first stage of development was thissensorimotor stage,the cognitive phase, which begins at birth and lasts until about the second year of life. It is defined by the direct physical interactions babies have with the objects around them.. In this phase, babies form their first schemas with their primary senses: they see, hear, grasp, hold, shake and taste things in their environment.

During the sensorimotor phase, the use of the senses to perceive the world is so fundamental to the infant's understanding that, as far as he is concerned, objects do not exist unless the infant directly perceives objects. For example, Piaget found that if he first attracted babies to a toy and then covered it with a blanket, infants under six months pretended the toy had disappeared entirely: they never tried to find it under the blanket. Blanket, but he smiled anyway and reached out to her as she removed the blanket. Piaget found that children didn't realize until about eight months of age that the object was simply obscured and not gone. Piaget used the termpermanent objectrefers tothe child's ability to know that an object exists even when the object cannot be perceived.

Children under eight months do not understand object permanence.

Watch: Object Permanence [YouTube]:http://www.youtube.com/v/nwXd7WyWNHY

From about two years to about seven years., the kids go to thepreoperative phase. during this phaseChildren begin to use language and think about objects more abstractly, with the ability to form mental images; However, their understanding is more intuitive and they don't have much ability to reason or reason.. Thinking is preoperational, meaning the child is unable to mentally operate on or transform objects. In a study showing the magnitude of this deficiency, Judy DeLoache (1987) showed children a room in a doll's house. In the room, behind a small sofa, was a small toy. The researchers placed the children in another laboratory room that was an exact replica of the doll's house, but life-size. When asked to find the toy, the 2.5-year-olds didn't know where to look; They just couldn't switch through room size changes. The three-year-olds, on the other hand, immediately looked for the toy behind the sofa and showed that their operational skills improved.

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Young children's inability to see transitions also causes them to beegocentricunable to easily see and understand other people's points of view. Define developmental psychologiststhought theorylikethe ability to take another person's point of view, and the ability to do so increases rapidly during the preoperative period. In a demonstration of the developing theory of mind, a researcher shows a child a video of another child (let's call her Anna) putting a ball in a red box. Anna then leaves the room and the video shows an investigator moving the ball from the red box to the blue box while she is gone. As the video continues, Anna returns to the room. The child is then asked to point to the box where Anna will likely search to find her ball. Children under the age of four often cannot understand that Anna does not know that the ball has moved and predict that she will look for it in the blue box. From the age of four, however, children have developed a theory of thinking: they realize that different people can have different points of view and that Anna (despite being wrong) will still think the ball is still in the box.

After about seven to eleven years, the child moves to theconcrete operating phase, wascharacterized by a more frequent and precise use of transitions, operations, and abstract concepts, including those of time, space, and numbers. An important milestone in the concrete operating phase is the conservational development:the understanding that changes in the shape of an object do not necessarily imply changes in the quantity of the object. Children under the age of seven often think that a tall glass of milk contains more milk than a shorter, wider glass, and they continue to believe this even when they see the same milk spilled between glasses. It seems that these children only focus on one dimension (in this case the height of the cup) and ignore the other dimension (width). However, when children reach the concrete operating stage, their ability to understand such transformations makes them realize that while the milk looks different in different cups, the amount must be the same.

Children under the age of seven do not understand conservation principles.

See: "Conservation" [YouTube]:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o&feature=youtu.be

Around the age of 11, children enter theformale operative Phase, wascharacterized by the ability to think in abstract terms and to use scientific and philosophical approaches. Children in the formal operational phase are better able to systematically test alternative ideas to determine their impact on outcomes. For example, instead of haphazardly changing different aspects of a situation that don't allow for firm conclusions, they systematically make changes to one thing at a time and see the difference that particular change makes. They learn to think deductively, such as "if this, then that," and become able to imagine situations that "could be" rather than just those that actually exist.

Piaget's theories made a significant and enduring contribution to developmental psychology. Among his contributions is the idea that children are not just passive recipients of information, but are actively involved in acquiring new knowledge and understanding the world around them. This general idea has spawned many other theories of cognitive development, all aimed at helping us better understand the development of a child's information processing skills (Klahr & MacWhinney, 1998; Shrager & Siegler, 1998). Furthermore, the extensive research that inspired Piaget's theory generally supported his beliefs about the order in which perception develops. Piaget's work has also been applied to many fields; For example, many teachers use Piaget's stages to develop pedagogical approaches that target the level children are ready for (Driscoll, 1994; Levin, Siegler, & Druyan, 1990).

Over the years, Piaget's ideas have been refined. For example, object permanence is now believed to evolve gradually rather than instantaneously, as a true stage model would predict, and can sometimes evolve much earlier than Piaget anticipated. Renée Baillargeon and colleagues (Baillargeon, 2004; Wang, Baillargeon, and Brueckner, 2004) placed infants in a habituation environment in which they observed an object being placed completely concealed behind a screen. The researchers then made the object reappear in a different location behind a different screen. Babies who saw this pattern of events stayed longer at the screen than babies who witnessed the same object being physically moved between screens. These data suggest that the babies were aware that the object still existed despite being hidden behind the screen and therefore showed object permanence as early as three months of age, rather than the predicted eight months.

Another factor that may have surprised Piaget is the extent to which a child's social environment affects learning. In some cases, children develop new ways of thinking and retreat to old ones depending on the type of task they are performing, the circumstances they are in, and the type of language used to teach them (Courage & Howe, 2002). ) And children in different cultures show slightly different patterns of cognitive development. Dasen (1972) found that children in non-Western cultures progressed to the next developmental stage about a year later than children in Western cultures, and this level of education also influenced cognitive development. In conclusion, Piaget's theory probably underestimated the contribution of environmental factors to social development.

Recent theories (Cole, 1996; Rogoff, 1990; Tomasello, 1999) are largely based on thesociocultural theoryby the Russian scholar Lev Vygotsky (1962, 1978) argue soCognitive development in the child is not entirely isolated but occurs at least in part through social interactions.. These scholars argue that children's thinking develops through constant interactions with more competent others, including parents, peers, and teachers.

An extension of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory is the idea ofcollaborative learning, in whichChildren serve as teachers and students. This approach is commonly used in classrooms to enhance learning and increase accountability and respect for others. When children work together in groups to learn material, they can help and support each other's learning and learn from one another as individuals, thereby reducing bias (Aronson, Blaney, Stephan, Sikes, & Snapp, 1978; Brown, 1997).

Social Development of Childhood

Through remarkable increases in cognitive abilities, children learn to interact with and understand their environment. But these cognitive abilities are only part of the changes that take place during childhood. Equally crucial is the development of a child's social skills: the ability to understand, anticipate and connect with others around them.

Knowing yourself: The development of the self-concept

One of the most important milestones in a child's social development is learning about their own existence (Figure 7.5). This self-awareness is known asknowledge, and the content of consciousness is known asself concept. Öself conceptesa representation or knowledge schema that contains knowledge about ourselves, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, and the knowledge that we exist as individuals(Kagan, 1991).

Some animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and perhaps dolphins, have at least a primitive sense of identity (Boysen & Himes, 1999). In one study (Gallup, 1970) researchers drew a red dot on the foreheads of anesthetized chimpanzees and then placed each animal in a cage with a mirror. When the chimpanzees woke up and looked in the mirror, they touched the dot on their faces, not the dot on the faces in the mirror. These actions suggest that the chimpanzees understood that they were looking at themselves and not at other animals, so we can assume that they are able to recognize that they exist as individuals. On the other hand, most other animals, including dogs, cats, and monkeys, for example, never realize it is them in the mirror.

Babies with a similar red dot on their foreheads recognize themselves in the mirror in the same way as chimpanzees do, around 18 months of age (Povinelli, Landau, & Perilloux, 1996). A child's knowledge of himself continues to develop as he grows. At the age of two, the baby becomes aware of its gender, whether it is a boy or a girl. By age four, self-descriptions are likely to be based on physical characteristics such as hair color and possessions, and by age six children are capable of understanding basic emotions and trait concepts and making statements such as "I, I am a good person" (Harter, 1998 ).

Soon after children start school (around the age of five or six), they start doing itMaking comparisons to other children, a process known as social comparison. For example, a child may describe himself as faster than one child but slower than another (Moretti & Higgins, 1990). According to Erikson, the important component of this process is the development ofcompetencejAutonomyRecognition of one's own abilities in relation to other children. And children show an increasing awareness of social situations: they understand that other people look at and judge them the same way they look at and judge others (Doherty, 2009).

Successful relationship with others: attachment

One of the most important behaviors a child must learn is to be accepted by others: developing close and meaningful social relationships.The emotional bonds we form with those we feel closest to, and particularly the bonds an infant forms with their mother or primary caregiver, are calledattached file(Cassidy and Shaver, 1999). See examples in Figure 7.6.

As late as the 1930s, psychologists believed that children raised in institutions such as orphanages and receiving good physical care and proper nutrition would develop normally even if they had little interaction with their caregivers. But studies by developmental psychologist John Bowlby (1953) and others showed that these children did not develop normally: they were generally unhealthy, emotionally sluggish, and generally unmotivated. These observations helped clarify that normal child development requires successful attachment to a caregiver.

In a classic study demonstrating the importance of attachment, University of Wisconsin psychologists Harry and Margaret Harlow examined the reactions of young monkeys separated from their birth mothers to two surrogate mothers placed in their cages. One, the wire mother, consisted of a round wooden head, a cold mesh of metal wire, and a milk bottle for the baby monkey to drink from. The second mother was a foam form wrapped in a warm woolen blanket. The Harlows found that although baby monkeys sought food from the wire mother, they preferred and spent much more time with the warm, soft mother, who did not provide food but comfort (Harlow, 1958).

The Harlows' studies showed that young monkeys preferred a warm mother who provided a secure base to a cool mother who provided food.

Exploring and Learning – Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Edition (8)Assista: „Harlows Monkeys“ [YouTube]: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MmbbfisRiwA

Harlow's studies confirmed that babies have social and physical needs. Both monkeys and human babies need asecure baseto begives them a safe feeling. With this foundation, they can gain the confidence they need to set out and explore their worlds. Erikson (Table 7.1, “Developmental Challenges of Erik Erikson”) agrees on the importance of a secure base and argues that the most important goal of childhood is the development of a basic sense of trust in the caregivers.

Developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth, a student of John Bowlby, became interested in studying attachment development in infants. Ainsworth created a laboratory test that measures a baby's attachment to mom or dad. The exam is calleduncomfortable situation— a measure of attachment in young children that assesses the child's behavior in a situation where the caregiver and a stranger are in and out of the environment- because it occurs in an unfamiliar context for the child and therefore tends to increase the child's need for parents (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters & Wall, 1978). During the approximately 20-minute procedure, parents and baby are initially left alone while the baby explores the room full of toys. A strange adult then enters the room and speaks to the parent for a minute, after which the parent leaves the room. The stranger stays with the baby for a few minutes, then the father comes back and the stranger leaves the room. Throughout the session, a video camera records the child's behavior, which is then coded by trained coders.

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In the strange situation, children are observed reacting to the comings and goings of parents and unfamiliar adults around them.

See: "The Strange Situation" [YouTube]:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU

Based on their behavior, children are placed into one of four groups, with each group reflecting a different type of attachment relationship with the caregiver. a child with asecure attachment styleusuallyexplores freely while mother is present and engages with a stranger. The child can be upset when the mother leaves, but happy when she comes back. a child with aambivalent(sometimes calledperpetually insecure)binding styleesDistrustful of the situation in general, especially the stranger who stays close or even clings to the mother instead of exploring the toys.. When the mother leaves, the boy is very desperate and ambivalent when she returns. The child can run to the mother, but not cling to her when she catches the child. a child with aavoid(sometimes calledinsecure-avoidant)binding styleoravoiding or ignoring mother, showing little emotion when mother leaves or returns. The child can run away from the mother if she approaches. The child will not explore much no matter who is there, and the stranger will not be treated very differently from the mother.

Finally a boy with meDisorganized attachment styleIt seems to haveThere is no consistent way to deal with the stress of the uncomfortable situation– The child may cry during the separation but avoid the mother when she returns, or the child may approach the mother but then freeze or fall to the ground. While some cultural differences in attachment styles have been noted (Rothbaum, Weisz, Pott, Miyake, & Morelli, 2000), research has also found that the proportion of children who fall into each of the attachment categories is relatively constant across all age groups. Cultures (see Figure 7.7, “Proportion of children with different attachment styles”).

You may be wondering whether differences in attachment styles are more child-driven (nature) or more parent-driven (upbringing). Most developmental psychologists believe that socialization is most important, arguing that a child becomes a secure attachment when the mother is available and able to respond receptively and appropriately to the child's needs, but that insecure styles emerge, when the mother is insensitive and reacts. incompatible with the needs of the child. In a direct test of this idea, Dutch researcher Dymphna van den Boom (1994) randomly assigned mothers of infants to a training session in which they learned how best to respond to the needs of their infants. Research found that babies born to these mothers were more likely to demonstrate a secure attachment style than babies born to mothers in a control group who had not received training.

But it is likely that the child's attachment behavior will also be affected, at least in partTemperament,the innate characteristics of the child's personality. Some children are warm, friendly, and accepting, while others tend to be irritable, unmanageable, and difficult to comfort. These differences may also play a role in attachment (Gillath, Shaver, Baek, & Chun, 2008; Seifer, Schiller, Sameroff, Resnick, & Riordan, 1996). Taken together, it seems certain that attachment, like most other developmental processes, is influenced by a combination of genetic and socialization influences.

Research approach: Using a longitudinal research design to assess attachment stability

You may be wondering if the attachment style babies exhibit has a major impact later in life. In fact, research has found that children's attachment styles predict their emotions and behavior many years later (Cassidy & Shaver, 1999). Psychologists have studied the persistence of attachment styles over timelongitudinal section drawingsResearch projects in which the sampled persons are followed and contacted over a longer period of time, mostly in different stages of development..

In one such study, Waters, Merrick, Treboux, Crowell, and Albersheim (2000) examined the extent of stability and change in attachment patterns from childhood to early adulthood. In their research, 60 middle-class children who were tested in the odd situation at one year of age were contacted 20 years later and interviewed with a measure of attachment to adults. Waters and her colleagues found that 72% of participants received the same secure versus insecure attachment scores in early adulthood as they did as infants. Adults who changed categorization (generally from safe to unsafe) were primarily those who had experienced traumatic events such as parental death or divorce, a serious illness (inflicted by parents or children), or physical or sexual abuse by a family member had.

Longitudinal studies have found not only that people generally exhibit the same attachment style over time, but also that the attachment ratings obtained in childhood (assessed by the uncomfortable situation or other metrics) predict many behaviors in children and adults. Securely attached infants have closer and more harmonious relationships with their peers, are less anxious and aggressive, and are better able to understand the emotions of others than those classified as insecure infants (Lucas-Thompson & Clarke-Stewart, 2007). Securely attached youth also have more positive romantic and peer relationships than their less securely attached peers (Carlson, Sroufe, & Egeland, 2004).

Conducting longitudinal surveys is a very difficult task, but with significant rewards. If the sample size is large enough and the time period long enough, the potential results of such a study can provide rich and important information about how people change over time and what causes those changes. Disadvantages of longitudinal studies include cost and difficulty in finding a large sample that can be accurately tracked over time and the time (many years) required to obtain the data. As the results are delayed over a longer period of time, the research questions asked at the beginning of the study may become less relevant over time as the research progresses.

cross-sectional research projectsThey represent an alternative to longitudinal designscross-sectional research project,Age comparisons are made between samples of different people of different ages at the same time.. In one example, Jang, Livesley, and Vernon (1996) studied two groups of identical and dizygotic (fraternal) twins, one group in their 20s and another in their 50s, to determine the influence of genetics on personality. They found that genetics played a greater role in the older twins, suggesting that genetics became more important in personality in adulthood.

Cross-sectional studies have the great advantage that the scientist does not have to wait years for results. On the other hand, the interpretation of the results in a cross-sectional study is not as straightforward as in a longitudinal study that examines the same people over time. More importantly, interpretations from cross-sectional studies can be confusedcohort effects.cohort effectsrefer tothe possibility that differences in cognition or behavior at two time points are caused by differences unrelated to age changes. Rather, the differences could be due to environmental factors affecting an entire age group.. For example, in the study by Jang, Livesley, and Vernon (1996) comparing older and younger twins, cohort effects can be a problem. The two groups of adults are bound to have grown up in different time periods and may have been influenced differently by societal experiences such as economic difficulties, the presence of wars, or the introduction of new technologies. As a result, in cross-sectional studies like this one, it is difficult to determine whether differences between groups (e.g., in the relative roles of environment and genetics) are due to age or other factors.

main topics

  • Babies are born with a variety of skills and abilities that contribute to their survival, and they also actively learn by interacting with their environment.
  • The habituation technique is used to demonstrate the newborn's ability to remember and learn from experience.
  • Children use both assimilation and accommodation to develop functional schemas of the world.
  • Piaget's theory of cognitive development posits that children develop through a specific series of sequential stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
  • Piaget's theories had a great impact, but they were also criticized and expanded upon.
  • Social development requires developing a secure base from which children can feel free. Attachment styles relate to the security of that base and, more generally, to the types of relationships people, especially children, form with those they care about.
  • Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies are used to test hypotheses about evolution, and each approach has advantages and disadvantages.

exercises and critical thinking

  1. Give an example of a situation in which you or someone else might demonstrate cognitive assimilation and cognitive accommodation. In which cases do you think each process is most likely to occur?
  2. Consider some examples of how teachers teaching young children can apply Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development.
  3. Consider the attachment styles of some of your friends in relation to their relationships with parents and other friends. Do you think his style is safe?


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Doherty, MJ (2009).Theory of Mind: How children understand the thoughts and feelings of others. . . . New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Driscoll, MP (1994).Learning psychology for the classroom.. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Gallup, GG, Jr (1970). Chimpanzees: self-knowledge.Sciences, 167(3914), 86–87.

Gibson, E.J. e Pick, AD (2000).An ecological approach to learning and cognition development. . . . Nova York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gibson EJ, Rosenzweig MR. & Porter, L.W. (1988). Exploratory behaviors in the development of cognition, performance, and knowledge acquisition. In theAnnual Journal of Psychology.(Vol. 39, pp. 1-41). Palo Alto, CA: Year in Review.

Gillath, O., Shaver, P.R. , Baek , J.-M. and Chun, D.S. (2008). Genetic correlates have adult attachment styles.Bulletin of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(10), 1396–1405.

Harlow, H. (1958). The nature of love.American psychologist, 13, 573–685.

Harter, S. (1998). The development of self-portrayal. In W. Damon and N. Eisenberg (eds.),Handbook of Child Psychology: Social, Emotional, and Personal Development(5th ed., vol. 3, pp. 553-618). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

James, W. (1890).The principles of psychology.. New York, NY: Dover.

Jang, K.L., Livesley, W.A. & Vernon, P.A. (1996). The genetic basis of personality at different ages: a cross-sectional twin study.Personality and individual differences, 21, 299–301.

Juraska, J.M., Henderson, C. & Müller, J. (1984). Experience of differential creation, genre and performance in a radial labyrinth.Developmental Psychobiology, 17th(3), 209–215.

Kagan, J. (1991). The theoretical utility of constructions of the self.development report, 11, 244–250.

Klahr, D. & MacWhinney, B. (1998). process information. In D. Kuhn and R.S. Siegler (eds.),Textbook of child psychology: cognition, perception and language(5th ed., vol. 2, pp. 631-678). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

(Video) Class 1 Introduction to Psychology Part 2 Recordings

Levin I, Siegler S.R. & Druyan, S. (1990). Misconceptions about exercise: implications of development and training.Child development, 61, 1544–1556.

Lucas-Thompson, R. & Clarke-Stewart, K.A. (2007). Friendship Prediction: How Marital Quality, Maternal Mood, and Attachment Security Are Associated with Children's Peer Relationships.Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28(5–6), 499–514.

Moretti, M.M. & Higgins, E.T. (Nineteen Hundred Ninety). The development of self-esteem vulnerabilities: Social and cognitive factors in developmental psychopathology. In R.J. Sternberg and J. Kolligian, Jr. (eds.),considered competition(S. 286–314). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.

Porter RH, Makin JW, Davis LB. & Christensen, K.M. (1992). Breastfed babies respond to olfactory cues from their own mother and from unfamiliar breastfeeding women.Behavior and development of children, 15(1), 85–93.

Povinelli DJ, Landau KR. & Perilloux, H.K. (1996). Self-recognition in young children with delayed feedback compared to in vivo feedback: evidence for developmental asynchrony.Child development, 67(4), 1540–1554.

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Shrager, J. & Siegler, R.S. (1998). SCADS: A model of children's strategy choice and findings.Psychology, 9, 405–422.

Smith, L.B. & Thelen, E. (2003). Development as a dynamic system.Trends in the cognitive sciences, 7(8), 343–348.

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Vygotsky, LS (1962).thinking and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Vygotsky, LS (1978).mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wang, SH, Baillargeon, R & Brueckner, L (2004). Toddler thinking about hidden objects: Evidence for expectation violation tasks with trials alone.cognition, 93, 167–198.

Waters E, Merrick S, Treboux D, Crowell J & Albersheim L (2000). Attachment security in childhood and early adulthood: a twenty-year longitudinal study.Child development, 71(3), 684–689.

Wynn, K. (1995). Babies have a numerical knowledge system.Current directions in psychology, 4, 172–176.

image assignments

Figure 7.2:Adapted from Wynn (1995).

Figure 7.3: Jean Piagetby Anton Johansson, http://www.flickr.com/photos/mirjoran/455878802, used under a CC BY 2.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/).

Figure 7.5:child in the mirror" ProSamantha Steele(http://www.flickr.com/photos/samanthasteele/3983047059/) is licensed underLizenz CC BY-NC-ND 2.0(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en_CA). There's a monkey in my mirror" bymost(http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmoorr/1921632741/) is licensed underLicense CC BY-NC 2.0(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/deed.en_CA). „Mirror mirror who is the cutest dog?” ProRomero(http://www.flickr.com/photos/rromer/6309501395/) is licensed underLicense CC BY-NC-SA 2.0(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/deed.en_CA).

(Video) Psychology 101 Chapter 6 (Learning) Lecture Part 1

Figure 7.6:Those: "maternal bond” by Koivth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MaternalBond.jpg) is licensed under theCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en_CA). „an amazing father" ProJulien Harneis(http://www.flickr.com/photos/julien_harneis/6342076964/in/photostream/) is under licenseCC BY-SA 2.0(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en_CA). „Simon and Christian” by Joymaster (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Szymon_i_Krystian_003.JPG) is licensed under theCreative Commons Attribution-Compartir Igual 3.0(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en_CA).

Long descriptions:

Figure 7.7 long description:children's attachment styles. 60% are sure. 15% are disorganized. Avoid 15%. 10% are ambivalent.[Back to Figure 7.7]

  1. A method that uses habituation principles to allow researchers to infer the cognitive processes of newborns.


When was Introduction to Psychology 1st Canadian edition published? ›

Unless otherwise noted, Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Edition is (c) 2010 Charles Stangor.

Where was Introduction to Psychology 1st Canadian edition published? ›

Victoria, B.C. Introduction to Psychology - 1st Canadian Edition by Jennifer Walinga and Charles Stangor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

What is the first book of modern psychology called and when was it first published? ›

One possible answer would be “William James,” who wrote the first psychology textbook, Principles of Psychology, in 1890.

Who is the publisher of Introduction to Psychology? ›

Introduction to Psychology | SAGE Publications Inc.

When was the 11th edition of Exploring psychology published? ›

October 19, 2018

Who wrote Introduction to Psychology 1st Canadian edition? ›

Introduction to Psychology - 1st Canadian Edition by Jennifer Walinga and Charles Stangor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Who wrote the 1st textbook in psychology? ›

William James, an American philosopher and psychologist (who was initially a physician), is considered the author of the first psychology textbook in the US. His Principles of Psychology, published in 1890, was a highly influential work in two volumes.

Is Canadian psychology peer reviewed? ›

Canadian Psychology (French: Psychologie canadienne) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association on behalf of the Canadian Psychological Association.

What was the first psychology textbook? ›

(A) William James wrote the first psychology textbook, The Principles of Psychology, in 1890.

Which American teacher wrote the first comprehensive psychology book that is still referred to today published in 1890? ›

William James wrote The Principles of Psychology (1890), The Will to Believe, and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897), The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), Pragmatism: A New Name for Old Ways of Thinking (1907), and other works.

Who is considered the father of psychology? ›

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832–1920) is known to posterity as the “father of experimental psychology” and the founder of the first psychology laboratory (Boring 1950: 317, 322, 344–5), whence he exerted enormous influence on the development of psychology as a discipline, especially in the United States.

How do you cite an introduction in psychology? ›

Psychology 101: Introduction to Psychology
  1. article title or chapter title.
  2. periodical title or book title.
  3. author(s) or editor(s)
  4. place of publication.
  5. date of publication.
  6. publisher name.
  7. volume/issue (articles) or edition (books)
  8. page range.
Dec 23, 2022

Who is the best psychology author? ›

10 Psychology Books Everyone Should Read
  • Predictably Irrational – Dan Ariely. ...
  • Thinking, Fast and Slow – Daniel Kahneman. ...
  • Bad science – Ben Goldacre. ...
  • The Invisible Gorilla – Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons. ...
  • Influence: Science and Practice – Robert Cialdini.
Nov 8, 2021

Is Introduction to Psychology a hard class? ›

Because the course is "introductory," some students imagine that Intro Psych ought to be a relatively easy course. Yet many students are shocked to discover that it is one of the most difficult courses they take, especially early in their college careers.

Is intro to psychology difficult? ›

Introductory Psychology is one of the most popular college courses around. But it's also one of the hardest to teach. Each year, more than a million students embark on the journey to understand the hows and whys of human thought and behavior.

Which book is better for psychology? ›

The Little Book of Psychology by Emily Ralls and Caroline Riggs. All of the best bits about psychology with none of the fluff. This is a good book to read if you want a basic overview of psychology and to learn about the key theories.

When was psychology 12th edition published? ›

November 1, 2017

How many books are there in psychology class 11? ›

In this NCERT Books Class 11 Psychology both books are provided with all chapters of the Psychology Subject. Get here the complete chapters wise study material of NCERT Book Class 11 Psychology. Chapter 1 : What is Psychology?

When was psychology in modules 12th edition published? ›

November 10, 2017

Who wrote the first psychology textbook in 1874? ›

Wundt applied himself to writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology, Principles of Physiological Psychology, in 1874. This was the first textbook that was written pertaining to the field of experimental psychology.

Who wrote the first psychology textbook in 1890? ›

One possible answer is William James, who wrote the first psychology textbook, Principles of Psychology, in 1890.

Who created the first psychology lab and why was this significant? ›

Wilhelm Wundt opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879. This was the first laboratory dedicated to psychology, and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern psychology. Indeed, Wundt is often regarded as the father of psychology.

What are the 7 Principles of Psychology? ›

Table of Contents
  • The principle of authority.
  • The principle of social proof.
  • The principle of reciprocity.
  • The principle of likability.
  • The principle of scarcity.
  • The principle of consistency.
  • The principle of reinforcement.
Aug 10, 2022

Who was the 1st American psychologist? ›

William James died 100 years ago today, but his influence is still with us. He contributed mightily to the early growth of psychology, writing the first textbook, establishing the first demonstration laboratory, and teaching the first course on the subject.

What is significant about William James book Principles of Psychology? ›

In The Principles of Psychology (1890), American philosopher and psychologist William James shifted emphasis away from an association of ideas to an association of central nervous processes caused by overlapping or immediately successive stimuli.

Are there APA accredited programs in Canada? ›

1, 2015 the APA CoA no longer accredits programs in Canada, in accordance with the revised agreement between the APA and the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA). Accreditation of programs in Canada are handled solely by the CPA.

Which school is best for psychology Canada? ›

Best Global Universities for Psychiatry/Psychology in Canada
  • University of Toronto.
  • University of British Columbia.
  • McGill University.
  • University of Calgary.
  • McMaster University.
  • University of Ottawa.
  • Western University (University of Western Ontario)
  • York University - Canada.

What is the impact factor of Canadian Psychology 2022? ›

The 2022-2023 Journal's Impact IF of Canadian Psychology is 1.939, which is just updated in 2023.

What was psychology first called? ›

Their work was called psychophysics, and it introduced methods for measuring the relationship between physical stimuli and human perception that would serve as the basis for the new science of psychology (Fancher & Rutherford, 2011).

Who published the first social psychology textbooks? ›

William McDougall cofounded the British Psychological Society in 1901 and published one of the first social psychology textbooks, An Introduction to Social Psychology (1908).

Which novel is considered as the first psychological novel? ›

Although an overtly psychological approach is found among the earliest English novels, such as Samuel Richardson's Pamela (1740), which is told from the heroine's point of view, and Laurence Sterne's introspective first-person narrative Tristram Shandy (1759–67), the psychological novel reached its full potential only ...

Who wrote the first Educational Psychology text in 1903? ›

Educational Psychology (1903): Thorndike, Edward L.: 9781164060314: Amazon.com: Books.

Did William James believe in God? ›

It allowed for God. James was always interested in religion and believed in its importance, encouraging his sons to attend Harvard's early morning services. He confessed he had no experience of God, but he respected those who did.

Who is the mother of psychology? ›

Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman to earn a doctoral degree in American psychology (1894) and the second woman, after Mary Whiton Calkins, to serve as APA President. Ironically, Calkins earned her doctorate at Harvard in 1894, but the university trustees refused to grant her the degree.

What are the 4 goals in psychology? ›

To sum up, psychology is centered on four major goals: to describe, explain, predict, and change or control behaviors. These goals are the foundation of most theories and studies in an attempt to understand the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes that people face in their daily lives.

What does weird stand for in psychology? ›

Why the acronym WEIRD? The acronym WEIRD—Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic—aims to raise people's consciousness about psychological differences and to emphasize that WEIRD people are but one unusual slice of humanity's cultural diversity.

Should I use APA or MLA for psychology? ›

APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities. Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts.

How do you reference a book in psychology? ›

APA style uses a parenthetical, author-date format for in-text citations. After a quotation or reference, add parentheses containing the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number of the work being cited. Use a single "p." for one-page, and a "pp." for multi-page quotations.

How do you cite a textbook in APA? ›

Author last name, Author first name initial. (Year published). Textbook title (Edition, pages used). Publisher.

Who is the most controversial psychologist? ›

Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiments on obedience conducted in the 1960s during his professorship at Yale. The Bronx, New York City, U.S.

Who is the most respected psychologist? ›

Sigmund Freud – Freud is perhaps the most well-known psychologist in history.

Who is the most respected psychologist in the world? ›

  • B. F. Skinner. ...
  • Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development had a profound influence on psychology, especially the understanding of children's intellectual growth. ...
  • Sigmund Freud. ...
  • Albert Bandura. ...
  • Leon Festinger. ...
  • William James. ...
  • Ivan Pavlov. ...
  • Carl Rogers.
Mar 28, 2020

Who are the 2 fathers of psychology? ›

Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James.

Who are the 4 main psychologists and what are their theories named? ›

Famous Psychologists & Theories:
  • Bowlby, John - Attachment Theory.
  • Bruner, Jerome - cognitive development of children.
  • Erikson, Erik - Theory of Psychosocial Development.
  • Freud, Sigmund - psychoanalysis.
  • Kohlberg, Lawrence - moral development.
  • Kolb, David - experiential learning styles theory.
Jan 6, 2023

Who were the 3 most important developmental psychologists? ›

During the 1900s three key figures have dominated the field with their extensive theories of human development, namely Jean Piaget (1896-1980), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and John Bowlby (1907-1990). Indeed, much of the current research continues to be influenced by these three theorists.

When was the first psychology textbook published? ›

William James, an American philosopher and psychologist (who was initially a physician), is considered the author of the first psychology textbook in the US. His Principles of Psychology, published in 1890, was a highly influential work in two volumes.

When was Psych fourth Canadian edition published? ›

KIT: PSYCH 4th Canadian Edition + MINDTAP PAC 12 MTHS Paperback – Jan. 1 2019.

What year was the first social psychology textbook released? ›

The earliest social psychology experiments on group behavior were conducted before 1900 (Triplett, 1898), and the first social psychology textbooks were published in 1908 (McDougall, 1908/2003; Ross, 1908/1974).

What year was the first social psychology textbook published? ›

William McDougall cofounded the British Psychological Society in 1901 and published one of the first social psychology textbooks, An Introduction to Social Psychology (1908).

What was the first book with psychology in title? ›

The first book on Psychology titled "Principal Psychology" is about psychology by William James, an American philosopher, and psychologist. It was published in the year 1895.

Who wrote the first real psychology textbook? ›

The Principles of Psychology
Title page from the first edition.
AuthorWilliam James
PublisherHenry Holt and Company
Publication date1890
4 more rows

When was psychological science 6th edition published? ›

July 1, 2018

When was psychology in your life 3rd edition published? ›

Product information
Publisher‎W. W. Norton & Company; Third edition (July 1, 2019)
Paperback‎768 pages
Item Weight‎3.08 pounds
6 more rows

Who is the father of psychology? ›

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (1832–1920) is known to posterity as the “father of experimental psychology” and the founder of the first psychology laboratory (Boring 1950: 317, 322, 344–5), whence he exerted enormous influence on the development of psychology as a discipline, especially in the United States.

Who published the first book of social psychology in 1908? ›

McDougall, W. (1908). An introduction to social psychology.

Who wrote the first modern textbook on social psychology? ›

Sociologist Edward Alsworth Ross would subsequently publish the first sociological textbook in social psychology, known as Social Psychology, in 1908.

What is the difference between psychology and social psychology? ›

Social psychology relies on understanding the role human behavior plays in mental well-being. Clinical psychology, on the other hand, uses a person-in-environment approach, emphasizing how biological, social, and psychological factors can affect a patient's mental state.


1. Lec 1 | MIT 9.00SC Introduction to Psychology, Spring 2011
(MIT OpenCourseWare)
2. Chapter 1: What is Psychology?
(Melissa Sutherland , Professor)
3. Introduction to Psychology: Chapter 4 (Part 1)
(Craig Fredin)
4. Selecting Discovering Psychology
5. What NO ONE tells you about majoring in PSYCHOLOGY
(Julia Ali)
6. The Integrative Approach of Discovering Psychology


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